Annual and transition report of foreign private issuers pursuant to Section 13 or 15(d)

Taxes on Income

Taxes on Income
12 Months Ended
Dec. 31, 2018
Income Tax Disclosure [Abstract]  



  a. Corporate Tax rates:


The Israeli corporate tax rates applicable to the Company, Nano Size and Digiflex:


2016 – 25%


2017 – 24%


2018 and thereafter – 23%


Non-Israeli subsidiaries are taxed according to the tax laws in their respective countries of residence.


  b. Net operating losses carryforwards:


As of December 31, 2018, the Company and its Israeli subsidiaries has accumulated losses for tax purposes in the amount of $36 million which may be carried forward and offset against taxable income for an indefinite period.


  c. Accounting for uncertainty in income taxes:


For the years ended December 31, 2018, 2017 and 2016, the Company did not have any unrecognized tax benefits and no interest and penalties related to unrecognized tax benefits had been accrued. The Company does not expect that the amount of unrecognized tax benefits will change significantly within the next 12 months.


  d. Tax assessments:


Tax reports filed by the Company and its Israeli subsidiaries through the year ended December 31, 2013 are considered final.


  e. Deferred taxes on income:


Significant components of the Company’s deferred tax assets are as follows:


    December 31,  
    2018     2017  
Deferred tax assets            
Operating loss carryforward   $ 8,291,967     $ 7,687,141  
Temporary differences    


Total deferred tax assets    


Valuation allowance    


)     (7,962,948 )
Net deferred tax assets   $



The net change in the total valuation allowance for the year ended December 31, 2018 related primarily to an increase in deferred taxes on NOLs for which a full valuation allowance was recorded. In assessing the likelihood that deferred tax assets will be realized, management considers whether it is more likely than not that some or all of the deferred tax assets will not be realized. The ultimate realization of deferred tax assets depends on the generation of future taxable income during the periods in which those temporary differences and tax loss carryforwards are deductible.


  f. Reconciliation of the theoretical tax benefit and the actual tax expense:


    Year ended December 31,  
    2018     2017     2016  
Loss before tax benefit   $ (1,972,558 )   $ (2,843,905 )   $ (1,621,400 )
Statutory tax rate     23 %     24 %     25 %
Income tax benefit     453,688       682,537       405,350  
Effect of:                        
Losses and timing differences for which valuation allowance was provided, net     (609,145 )     (474,700 )     (347,128 )
Non-deductible expenses and other permanent differences     146,315       (159,580 )     (27,055 )
Other     9,142       (48,257 )     (31,167 )
Income tax expense recognized in profit or loss   $     $     $